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Shadow Play

A white screen, a flame, some music and a few flat puppets that move and tell a story compose shadow play.

China Intangible Cultural Heritage

Year: 2006

Sort: Traditional Opera

Serial No.: IV-91

Area: Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Zhejiang, Hubei, Guangdong, Shaanxi, Gansu

The shadow play is a typical traditional entertainment that has survived and thrived over the centuries. It is also one of the earliest arts introduced by China to the West.

1. Origin

Legend has it that more than 2,000 years ago, Emperor Wudi (156-87 BC) of theWestern Han Dynasty was very depressed over the death of his favorite concubine. To help him get over his sadness, a minister made a puppet out of cotton and silk in the likeness of the concubine and projected its shadow on a curtain for the emperor to see. The show brought the emperor some consolation. He somehow believed the shadow was his lover's spirit. This is thought to be the beginning of the shadow play puppetry.

The shadow plays became quite popular as early as the Song Dynasty (960-1279) when holidays were marked by the presentation of many shadow plays. During theMing Dynasty (1368-1644), there were 40 to 50 shadow play troupes in the city of Beijing alone.

In the 13th century, shadow plays became a regular form of recreation in the barracks of Mongolian troops. They were spread by the conquering Mongols to distant lands like Persia, Arabia and Turkey. Later, the art was introduced to Southeast Asian countries, too.

Shadow puppets began to spread to Europe in the mid-18th century, when French missionaries to China took them back to France in 1767 and put on performances in Paris and Marseilles, causing quite a stir. As present, more than 20 countries are known to have shadow play troupes.

2. Artistic Characteristics of Performance

Illuminated puppet figures manipulated by three to five artists using a transparent white cloth screen have now formed an artistic combination of opera, music, fine art and special craftsmanship.

During performances, "actors" are held close to a white curtain with their colored shadows cast on it by a strong light from behind. Moved by guiding sticks, the puppets play roles with musical accompaniment. Parts are played and sung by the puppet masters. The plays can be quite dramatic and, when it comes to fairy tales orkungfu stories, the "actors" may be made to ride on clouds or perform unusual feats, to the great enjoyment of the audience, especially children.

A puppet figure requires five bamboo-sticks to operate. So the operator is usually highly sought-after, since he or she must not only have the ability to operate a puppet and sing and talk, but also be able to play a percussive instrument with his/her foot at the same time.

The popularity of shadow play is in some way attributable to the equipment being light and easy to carry, the small number of people needed for a performance, and the flexible requirements for performance venues. Shadow plays are mostly based on legends, folk tales and fables, although some are original. The shadow play is particularly adored by children for being so much more evocative of magic and mystery than folk opera ever could be, performed as it is by merely mortal players.

3. Creation of an Art

Paper and silk were originally used to make silhouettes, but cow, sheep and donkey hide (said to be the best for its transparency and durability) were found to be more suitable.

Processing a hide to the required degree of transparency is, however, a painstakingly elaborate process. It needs to be soaked in water for several days before being cleaned and having the hair, every vestige of fat and flesh scraped off. The resultantly fine, transparent sheet is then stretched over a wooden frame and left to air in the shade. Patterns nailed to the sheet are carved out, painted, ironed and coated in protective tung oil. The trunk, head and limbs of a puppet are carved out separately. Finally, the silhouettes are assembled, sewn at the joints and affixed with pulling strings and sticks so the puppets can simulate human movement. The puppets are painted various colors to show off their various qualities -- kind or wicked, beautiful or ugly.

Silhouette puppets are in themselves works of art. They incorporate folk painting and paper cuts, and through adoption of realistic and abstract approaches embody distinguishable character traits appropriate for shadow performances.

Shadow puppets consist of upper and lower bodies, legs, arms, hands and interchangeable heads. Any shadow play troupe prop box would contain more than 1,000 different heads to fit 200-300 bodies. Heads are either full-face or in profile with exaggerated features in order to achieve a better two-dimensional effect.

4. Main Genres

The shadow play found all over the country, is popular in Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Zhejiang, Liaoning and Beijing, each place distinctive in regards to the materials used to make puppets and their characterization. But the biggest differences are in different music and chanting tunes, styles of performance, and manipulating skills, based on which different genres have been formed.

I. Tangshan Shadow Play

Declarer: Tangshan City, Hebei Province  

The Tangshan shadow play, also known as the Leting or Luanzhou Shadow play, formed at the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and developed during the late period of theQing Dynasty (1644-1911) and the early stages ofthe Republic of China . It is one of the biggest genres of Chinese shadow plays and has a history of more than 400 years.

II. Southern Hebei Shadow Play

Declarer: Handan City, Hebei Province

The shadow play in southern Hebei originated from the royal shadow plays in Beijing.

III. Xiaoyi Shadow Play

Declarer: Xiaoyi City, Shanxi Province  

Xiaoyi Shadow Play originated in theWarring States Period (475-221BC) in Xiaoyi City, one of the cradles of Chinese shadow play art. It adopts the Pi tune as its aria and the suona horn as its main accompanying instrument.

IV. Fuzhou Shadow Play

Declarer: Wafangdian City, Liaoning Province  

Fuzhou Shadow Play was first introduced to Wafangdian by the frontier garrison dispatched from Shaanxi during the late (1573-1620) Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). It was prevalent in the Qing Dynasty.

V. Haining Shadow Play

Declarer: Haining City, Zhejiang Province

  

The shadow play was introduced to Haining in theSouthern Song Dynasty (1127-1279). It formed its unique southern tune by adopting theYiyang Tune and the Haiyan Tune. The libretto and spoken parts were also changed into the local dialect. The custom of worshipping the silkworm god became the special content of the shadow play in Haining, hence it was also called the Silkworm Opera.

VI. Jianghan Plain Shadow Play

Declarer: Qianjiang City, Hubei Province  

The Jianghan Plain is in south-central Hubei Province. The shadow play popular here is famous for its puppetcarving art and its singing tunes and Yugu (literally fishing and drumming) tune.

VII. Lufeng Shadow Play

Declarer: Shanwei City, Guangdong Province  

Lufeng shadow play is the only legacy ofChaozhou shadow plays, one of the three shadow play categories in China. It formed in the Song Dynasty and was popular during the Ming and Qing dynasties.

VIII. Hua County Shadow Play

Declarer: Weinan City, Shaanxi Province  

Hua County shadow plays usually involve five people. Among them, the most important one sings for all the characters and plays a drum as well yu-kin (a traditional Chinese musical instrument), one operates the figures, and the other three people are in charge of playing othermusical instruments .

IX. Huayin Ancient Shadow Play Tune

Declarer: Huayin City, Shaanxi Provine

The Huayin ancient tune is a genre developed from a folk story-telling art in Shaanxi at the end of the Ming Dynasty and early period of the Qing Dynasty.

X. Egong Shadow Play Tune

Declarer: Fuping County, Shaanxi Province

XI. Xianban Shadow Play Tune

Declarer:Gan County, Shaanxi Province

XII. Huan County Daoqing Shadow Play

Declarer: Huan County, Gansu Province  

Daoqing, a form of folk art, means "ballad with a moral theme." This form of shadow play is unique and is based on local life.

XIII. Linyuan Shadow Play

Declarer: Linyuan City, Liaoning Province